(This is the third post in a series around this question: Are we reading our own Cultural Biases into the Bible?)
In examining the issue of cultural bias influencing one’s understanding of the Bible, nothing is protected from examination–even the practices of my own Tribe, the United Methodist Church. Here is today’s question: Are ‘deacons’ and ‘elders’ to be considered clergy (pastors/preachers) or laity (the person in the pew)? Who’s right?
In case you may be unaware of this, but in my Tribe the offices of Elder and Deacon have traditionally been restricted to clergy or those engaging in specialized ministries–us folks who go through extensive education and even more extensive inquisitions from what we call the Board of Ordained Ministry (the Board of Ordained Ministry prefers the term “interview”, though it often looks more like an inquisition).
In other Tribes, the offices of elder and deacon are given to the laity; from among the rank and file membership. Though my knowledge of these Tribes is limited, my experiences with members and pastors is that the deacons and especially the elders, carry great authority, even to having pastors and other staff fired, and of course, choosing who will be “hired”.
The first mention of Elders in a church is found in Acts 11:30 when Paul and Barnabas delivered a love offering from the churches in Antioch to the church in Jerusalem. The word that has been translated as “elder” is the Greek word presbýteros, (pronounced pres-boo’-ter-os) and is comparative to the Greek word présbys ( which means elderly). It refers to someone who is older;, a senior. It is the same word used to describe key leaders in the Sanhedrin as well as local community leaders. In other words, the church “borrowed” this word from the Jewish tradition.
First mention of “deacon” is in Romans 16:1, a letter Paul wrote around 57 A.D. The Greek word used is diákonos, (pronounced dee-ak’-on-os) probably came from an obsolete word diákō (pronounced dee-ak’-o), which means to run on errands, an attendant, a waiter at table or in other menial duties, and one who executes the commands of another such as a master; one who is a servant, or attendant. Now this doesn’t sound like someone with great authority or who carries around a big stick.
As I did my due diligence in this research there’s another word or “office” described by Paul–bishop! It’s mentioned only twice in reference to people: 1 Timothy 3:1-2 and Titus 1:7. It’s the Greek word episkopḗ, (pronounced ep-is-kop-ay’) and means inspection, examine, and to visit. It comes from the word episképtomai (pronounced ep-ee-skep’-tom-ahee) and means to go to see, relieve:—look out, visit. By the way, it’s the same word found in Matthew 25:36 when Jesus said, “I was sick and you visited me.” This “office of bishop” is seen only in a limited number of Tribes, mine included.
From these passages I see nothing about these offices (deacon, elder, bishop) being limited to clergy/preachers. Furthermore, I do not see nor hear that idea of wielding great power or authority, especially the offices of deacon and bishop. So how did these offices of the early church become what they are today? In other words, “Where does this show signs of cultural bias?”
What I see is the influence of the Roman Catholic Tribe. Now to my Roman Catholic friends, please understand I am NOT picking on you or putting your Tribe and Traditions down. I’m simply stating a historical fact. The first major organizing of the church resulted in the formation of what we know as the Roman Catholic Church/Tribe.
The first significant reorganization of the church happened in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his “95 Theses” (FYI, use of drums and guitars in a sanctuary were not listed in this document). This led to what we now call the Protestant Reformation. As bodies of believers, churches reorganized and new Tribes formed. Over the decades and centuries these newly formed Tribes either copied the formal clerical structure of the Roman Catholic Tribe, or in an effort to distance themselves, went in the opposite direction of putting major leadership among laypersons rather than preachers.
This was influenced by Western Civilization of creating a hierarchy of authority and power. Tribes such as mine, used the term “elder” and “bishop” to create that sense of authority and power. These offices and roles were a far cry from the very first churches. The influence of Western Europe and England are seen in how the Greek words are translated, in particular, the office of Bishop. The word most commonly used in the English language is OVERSEER. That sounds like an office filled with great authority, when in reality it is a word about visiting the sick, examining and looking at what happens. OVERSEER also was used to describe an office in the ancient Feudal System.
At least to me it seems we have brought cultural biases when it comes to the offices of deacon, elder, and bishop/overseer. And I find myself at odds with my own Tribe in the use of these offices. I am also at odds with other Tribes that use these offices as forms of power and authority rather than offices of serving, caring for and caring about people.
Again, I am not asking or expecting anyone or everyone to agree with my thesis that these offices are another way that we have added cultural bias to our understanding of the Holy Writ. But if we have added our cultural bias to even one part of the Holy Writ, then there is a high probability that we are adding our cultural biases into other parts. What if, mind you, I’m only asking What If, What If we spend our time in the Holy Writ without the teachings and commentaries of our Tribes and listened to what was written? What If we sought the Giver of all Wisdom to guide us in the struggle of understanding it for ourselves? What If we looked back to the original languages as to the meaning of those words without adding cultural influences on those words? What If we sought the Holy Spirit to be our Guide, instead of primarily resting upon our cultural biases?
A very good friend, mentor and spiritual guide in my life came out of a Tribe with a very strict legalistic background. But now Tim embraces Grace and the understanding that the body of Christ is more than one Tribe, than God longs for Relationship over Rules. I asked him once what led to his personal transformation. He told me it happened as he was reading the Bible and the Holy Spirit began to challenge his personal cultural biases. Maybe this is what we all need.